George Orwell (1903-1950)
“A man may take to drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the more completely because he drinks. It is rather the same thing that is happening to the English language. It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts.” “Politics and the English Language”
introduction & biography
"Capturing and Creating the Modern," a project from the British Library, provides a group of excellent articles covering many of the early twentieth-century British modernists. Introductory, close reading, and thematic articles are authored by recognized experts in their subjects, and are supported by links to manuscript drafts of modernist works in British Library's archive.
"Blair, Eric Arthur (George Orwell)." Biography of Orwell by his major biographer. Education and early life, Setting out, Spain and after, Brief days of fame, Last days, and afterlife. Bernard Crick for the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
"George Orwell: Voice of a Long Generation." A briefer biography of Orwell, also by Sir Bernard Crick, this one for the BBC's British History, includes a few illustrations.
Annan, Noel. "Artist in Politics." A review of Bernard Crick's George Orwell: A Life. The New York Review of Books 16 April 1981 [first half of article only].
Anthony, Andrew. "Orwell: The Observer Years." The Observer 10 May 2003.
Ash, Timothy Garton. "Orwell in 1998." A review of The Complete Works of George Orwell, ed. Peter Davison. The New York Review of Books 22 Oct. 1998 [first half of article only].
Ash, Timothy Garton. "Orwell's List." On "George Orwell's notorious list of 'crypto-communists' that went into the files of a semisecret department of the Foreign Office on May 4, 1949." The New York Review of Books 25 Sept. 2003. Also, Christopher Hitchens on the same subject, 26 Sept. 2002.
Ash, Timothy Garton. "Orwell for our time." "He was the most influential and prescient political writer of the 20th century . . . But does he have any relevance today?" The Guardian 4 May 2001.
Atwood, Margaret. "Orwell and Me." On Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four  by novelist Margaret Atwood. The Guardian 15 June 2003.
Banville, John. "Good Man, Bad World." Reviews two biographies of Orwell. The New York Review of Books 6 Nov. 2003 [first half of article only]. Another review, "The Saint of Common Decency," by Piers Brendon in The Guardian 6 June 2003. Another review, "Reach-Me-Down Romantic," by Terry Eagleton, in The London Review of Books 19 June 2003 [first half of article only].
Bates, Stephen. "Odd clothes and unorthodox views: why MI5 spied on Orwell for a decade." "1984 author suspected of being a communist. Newly released files reveal Special Branch blunders." The Guardian 3 Sept. 2007.
Leys, Simon. "The Intimate Orwell." A review of Orwell's Diaries and Letters, both edited by Peter Davison. The New York Review of Books 26 May 2011.
Orwell at the BBC. Documents from the years Orwell worked at the British Broadcasting Company. "Internal memos explore working relationships with literary contributors, while letters written from the Hebridean island of Jura colour the background to the creation of Nineteen Eighty-Four." BBC Archive.
Breton, Rob. "Crisis? Whose crisis? George Orwell and liberal guilt." Orwell's take on the failure of middle-class liberals to connect with the working class. College Literature 29, 4 (Fall 2002) pp 47-66 [preview or purchase, jstor].
Cavendish, Richard. "Publication of 1984." History Today 49, 6 (1999).
Crick, Bernard. "Orwell as a comic writer." Orwell Prize.
Gessen, Keith. "Eternal vigilance." On Orwell as an essayist and stylist. New Statesman 28 May 2009.
Hopkins, Chris. "George Orwell." A substantial introduction to Orwell's writing. At the Literary Encyclopedia, a subscription service which publishes newly written essays by subject specialists, available to the general public for a reasonable cost. On Burmese Days; on Animal Farm; on Nineteen Eighty-Four  [subscription service].
Kerr, Douglas. "Orwell, Kipling, and Empire." Orwell Prize.
Kreis, Steven. "George Orwell and The Last Man in Europe." Part of Prof. Kreis's The History Guide: Lectures on Twentieth-Century Europe. Academic web site.
McCrum, Robert. "The masterpiece that killed George Orwell." The circumstances of Orwell's writing Nineteen Eighty-Four . The Observer 9 May 2009.
Owen, Paul. "1984 thoughtcrime? Does it matter that George Orwell pinched the plot?" The source of Nineteen Eighty-Four in We, a novel by Soviet Union writer Yevgeny Zamyatin. The Guardian 8 June 2009.
Paxman, Jeremy. "The genius of George Orwell." Orwell as an essayist and prose stylist. Introduction to Shooting an Elephant by George Orwell (Penguin Classics).
Pimlott, Ben. "Introduction to Nineteen Eighty-Four" . Orwell Prize.
Pritchett, V.S. "The most honest writer alive." Extract from Pritchett's original 1949 review of Nineteen Eighty-Four in The New Statesman.
Rae, Patricia. "Mr. Charrington's junk shop." On modernist influences in Nineteen Eighty-Four . Twentieth Century Literature Summer 1997 [subscription service].
Rae, Patricia. "Orwell, World War I modernism and the Spanish Civil War." Journal of War and Culture Studies 2, 3 (Dec. 2009) [abstract only].
Saunders, Loraine. "George Orwell A Master of Narration." Orwell Prize.
Stansky, Peter. "Utopia and Anti-Utopia." History Today 33, 2 (Feb. 1983) p 33.
Stansky, Peter. "Utopia and Anti-Utopia: William Morris and George Orwell." The Threepenny Review 10 (Summer 1982) pp 3-5 [free at jstor].
1998-2016 by Jan Pridmore