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Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844-1889)

A selective list of online literary criticism for the nineteenth-century Victorian poet Gerard Manley Hopkins, with links to reliable biographical and introductory material and signed, peer-reviewed, and scholarly literary criticism

Introduction & Biography

"Gerard Manley Hopkins." Poetry Foundation. Encyclopedia-type introduction to Hopkins, his biography, themes, and techniques, with selections from his most famous poems.

"Gerard Manley Hopkins." A short biographical introduction to Hopkins, with text for some of his best known poems, and links to other Victorian poets. Academy of American Poets.

Fennell, Frank Jr. A substantial introduction to Gerard Manley Hopkins. Literary Encyclopedia, 16 August 2004 [subscription service].

"Gerard Manley Hopkins." Essays on his techniques, themes, biography. Victorian Web, ed. Prof. George Landow

Literary Criticism

Banfield, Marie. "Darwinism, doxology, and energy physics: the new sciences, the poetry and the poetics of Gerard Manley Hopkins." On ways that the nineteenth century scientific revolution influenced Hopkins' development as a poet. Victorian Poetry 45, 2 (Summer 2007) pp 175-94 [excerpt, muse].

Day, Brian J. "Hopkins' Spiritual Ecology in 'Binsey Poplars.'" Day offers a refinement to the view of Hopkins as a ecological writer. Victorian Poetry 42, 2 (Summer 2004) pp 181-93 [substantial excerpt, muse].

Egan, Desmond. "Hopkins' Influence on Poetry." In Saving Beauty: Further Studies in Hopkins (Garland 1994) [sub ser, enotes, has 11 more scholarly articles on Hopkins].

Goss, Erin M. "'Almost unmade': Hopkins and the Body Apocalyptic." The potentially excessive experience that reveals the divinity inherent in the world, as expressed in "As kingfishers catch fire." Victorian Poetry 49, 1 (Spring 2011) pp 83-103 [substantial excerpt, muse].

Groves, Peter. "Hopkins and Tractarianism." The biographical and literary influence upon Hopkins of the Oxford Movement (the High Church Anglican movement, ultimately Anglo-Catholicism). Victorian Poetry 44, 1 (Spring 2006) pp 105-12 [substantial excerpt, muse].

Lackey, Michael. "'God's Grandeur': Gerard Manley Hopkins' Reply to the Speculative Atheist." Victorian Poetry 39, 1 (Spring 2001) pp 83-90 [excerpt].

Landow, George P. "Paradigm, Point of View, and Narrative Distance in Verbal and Visual Arts." On "The Wreck of the Deutschland," compares Christian and post-Christian versions of the shipwreck paradigm. Victorian Web.

Leavis, F.R. "Gerard Manley Hopkins." Important English literary critic's 1932 article on Hopkins' "radical and uncompromising" originality [sub ser, enotes].

LeVasseur, Jeanne. "Sprung Rhythm: Purged of Dross like Gold." Various critical interpretations of Hopkins' sprung rhythm. Victorian Poetry 36, 4 (Winter 1998) pp 431-42 [first page only, blurred, jstor].

Morlier, Margaret M. "'Barbarous in Beauty': The Violence of Time in the Poetry of Gerard Manley Hopkins." On violence in Hopkins' themes, imagery, and syntax. Victorian Poetry 35, 2 (Summer 1997) pp 215-32 [first page only, blurred, jstor].

Richards, I.A. "Gerard Hopkins." Another important English literary critic, 1926 article on Hopkins' innovative approach to poetry [sub ser, enotes].

Tontiplaphol, Betsy Winakur. "Good(s) Sonnets: Hopkins's Moral Materiality" On Hopkins as a "difficult" poet. Victorian Poetry 49, 2 (Summer 2011) pp 73-92 [substantial excerpt, muse].

Villeponteaux, Elizabeth. "Flashing foil and oozing oil: Trinitarian images in the first quatrain of 'God's Grandeur.'" On the opening imagery in "God's Grandeur." Victorian Poetry 40, 2 (Summer 2002) pp 201-7 [substantial excerpt, muse].

Winters, Yvor. "The Poetry of Gerard Manley Hopkins." A major American poet and literary critic opines on weaknesses in Hopkins' poetry. The Hudson Review 1, 4 (Winter 1949) pp 455-76 [sub ser, enotes].

Web Sites

Bridges, Robert, ed. Poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins now first published, edited with notes by Robert Bridges. London: Humphrey Milford, 1918. Page images of first edition, at the Internet Archive [click arrow to advance to first page].

"The Web Concordances," Rob Watt, ed. Six concordances with wordlists, includes Gerard Manley Hopkins' Poems First Edition, 1918. Also software to make your own concordance.

The Gerard Manley Hopkins Archive. Articles previously provided by the Hopkins International Summer School are now available at this web site, with a search engine.


"Victorianism." The Victorian Web. Prof. George Landow, ed. Essays topics include Victorianism as a Fusion of Neoclassical and Romantic Ideas; The Complex Realities of Victorianism; Main Currents in Victorian Intellectual History; The fundamental conflicts of Victorian poetry; Density and Elaborate Interconnectedness of High and Late Victorian culture; The Difficulties of Victorian Poetry; Victorian Doubt and Victorian Architecture; Victorian taste; Victorian Design; Race in Thought and Science; Victorian Earnestness; The Seaside in the Victorian Literary Imagination; Tennyson and Victorianism; The Victorian Gentleman; Crisis of Organized Religion; Queen Victoria.

"Monuments and Dust." A project by an international group of scholars who are creating a complex visual, textual, and statistical representation of Victorian London. Eds. Michael Levenson, David Trotter, Anthony Wohl. IATH, U of Va.

Jackson, L. "A Dictionary of Victorian London." Victorian social history through a "dictionary" of Victorian institutions.

"The Oxford Movement 1833-1845." From the Catholic Encyclopedia.

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